Had “Sports Illustrated” existed in 1900, its swimsuit issue would not have been especially titillating. Back then, the standard lady’s swimsuit wasn’t much different than her everyday clothes. It was basically a dress, plus a hat and even shoes.
By World War II, with fabric in short supply, slightly more revealing two-piece numbers were considered okay. But even they didn’t expose anything so scandalous as a — gasp! — Belly button.
But post-war? A couple of Frenchmen sensed the world was ready to loosen up. The first of them — one Jacques Heim — designed a two-piece so tiny he called it “l’atome.” The Atom.
But Heim was one-upped by his countryman, Louis Reard. On July 5th, 1946, he unveiled an even tinier suit: “The Bikini.” Named after a Pacific island atoll where, four days earlier, an atomic bomb had been tested. Reard claimed he had “split The Atom.”
Public reactions were … extreme. Reard got 50,000 fan letters thanking him for the invention. Mostly from men. But in some countries, shocked lawmakers instated bikini bans. Reard happily embraced the controversy. In ads, he said bikinis were small enough to be "pulled through a wedding ring."
Soon, the anti-bikini lobby collapsed as the suit became popular on beaches all over Europe and finally — in 1960 — in the U.S.A. The same year singer Brian Hyland scored a number-one hit about a girl too embarrassed to be seen in one.
This story comes to us courtesy of our friends at Dinner Party Download.
It’s been three months since the Islamist group Boko Haram kidnapped more than two hundred schoolgirls in Nigeria. The Nigerian government has yet to free the girls, and it’s come under criticism for its handling of the crisis. It’s also been shamed by the global campaign #BringBackOurGirls, which even Michelle Obama got in on.
So what’s a country with a bad rap to do? Get some PR, of course.
“I think there is a narrative that the government was not doing enough,” says Mark Irion, president of the public relations firm LEVICK, which signed a $1.2 million contract to galvanize support for the Nigerian government and its fight against terrorism.
LEVICK’s motto is "Communicating trust." Irion says much of the storyline about Nigeria’s tepid response to the crisis “is not true.”
“There are things that are underway and are public,” he says. “And there are things that, of course, cannot be publicly discussed. But, yes, there is a false narrative that we intend to correct.”
It’s no coincidence the Washington Post recently ran an op-ed from Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan. “My silence has been necessary,” he wrote, “to avoid compromising the details of our investigation.”
(Here’s a tongue-in-cheek response to that piece.)
J. Peter Pham directs the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council. He says the fact is Nigeria has failed to deal with Boko Haram over the years.
“You cannot spin that reality any more than you can spin the fact that there are more than two hundred schoolgirls still missing and Boko Haram continues to attack with impunity throughout northeastern Nigeria,” he says.
Now, trying to improve the image of foreign governments is nothing new. It’s big business for PR firms like Ketchum Inc., which made more than $10 million from its foreign clients last year, including the Russia Federation and Gazprom. (You can see that tabulation here, via the Sunlight Foundation.) Ketchum continued to represent Russia through the turmoil in Ukraine.
Still, part of this business is knowing who to represent and when to stop.
“You know everyone has their own litmus test,” says Toby Moffett, a former Congressman who used to run The Moffett Group. That was the M in the PLM Group, the trio of firms that lobbied and did communications for Egypt under Hosni Mubarak and the military council that replaced him.
That representation continued until Egyptian police raided U.S.-backed NGOs and barred some Americans from leaving the country.
“I did receive a call from a friend who happened to be President Obama’s Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood,” Moffett recalls. “And Ray was not happy, to put it mildly.”
LaHood’s son was one of the Americans who was temporarily trapped in Egypt. Moffett says he would’ve dropped the Egypt account anyway. Still…
“You know there was that kind of gentle persuasion, shall we say,” he says.
When it comes to foreign governments, it turns out gentle persuasion can run both ways.
One postscript: In October, Egypt signed a new contract with another communications firm, The Glover Park Group. That representation will cost the country $250,000 a month.
Host: It’s been three months since the Islamist group Boko Haram kidnapped hundreds of schoolgirls in Nigeria. The Nigerian government has yet to free them … it’s also been shamed by that global campaign … hashtag-bring-back-our-girls. Even Michelle Obama got in on that. So what’s a country with a bad rap to do? Get some PR, of course. Kate Davidson reports.
Here’s what Nigeria’s image problem sounds like:
News montage: The authorities had no number for how many girls were taken/The country’s first lady expressed doubts that there was any kidnapping./A government with no idea where they are – We want our girls back now. Now.
That … is a PR nightmare. Which is why someone in Nigeria called in the image pros.
Irion: I think there is a narrative that the government was not doing enough.
Mark Irion is president of the public relations firm Levick, which signed a 1.2 million dollar contract to galvanize support for the Nigerian government and its fight against terrorism. Levick’s motto is communicating trust. Irion says much of the storyline about Nigeria’s tepid response…
Irion: …is not true. There are things that are underway and are public. And there are things that, of course, cannot be publicly discussed. But yes, there is a false narrative that we intend to correct.
It’s no coincidence the Washington Post recently ran an op-ed from Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan. “My silence has been necessary,” he wrote, “to avoid compromising the details of our investigation.” J Peter Pham directs the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council. He says the fact is Nigeria has failed to deal with Boko Haram over the years.
Pham: You cannot spin that reality any more than you can spin the fact that there are more than two hundred schoolgirls still missing and Boko Haram continues to attack with impunity throughout Northeastern Nigeria.
Now, trying to improve the image of foreign governments is nothing new. It’s big business for PR firms like Ketchum … which made more than ten million dollars from foreign clients like Russia last year. Ketchum continued to represent Russia after it annexed Crimea. Still, part of this business is knowing who to represent and when to stop.
Moffett: You know everyone has their own litmus test.
Toby Moffett is a former Congressman who used to run The Moffett Group … one of the firms that lobbied and did PR for Egypt under Hosni Mubarak, and the military council that replaced him. Until, that is, Egyptian police raided US-backed NGOs and barred some Americans from leaving the country.
Moffett: I did receive a call from a friend who happened to be President Obama’s Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood. And Ray was not happy, to put it mildly.
LaHood’s son was one of the Americans who was temporarily trapped in Egypt. Moffett says he would’ve dropped the Egypt account anyway … but …
Moffett: You know there was that kind of gentle persuasion, shall we say.
When it comes to foreign governments, it turns out gentle persuasion can run both ways. I’m Kate Davidson, for Marketplace.
Corn prices fell to a record low; it hasn’t been this cheap in almost four years. Weather conditions are favorable for the crops at this point, and that means surpluses. But with so much corn, can farmers sell it all?
"There are still real nice markets out there," says Keith Alverson, a sixth-generation ethanol corn farmer in Chester, South Dakota. "It’s just a matter of what price point you want to market it at."
Alverson says although there's huge demand for corn, there's still an abundance of it that needs a home. So what does an ethanol corn farmer do with all of their extra corn?
"We are gearing it up for storage," says Alverson. They’ve added more bunker storage to hold the corn and are preparing for a big harvest.
Over the past few months, Alverson says he's seen a big change in corn prices. A bushel is going for about $3.50 now, about $1.00 to $1.50 less than it was a year ago.
But Alverson says he's confident he will still sell his corn and manage his profits accordingly.
"Just like any other business, you try and lock in your margins," says Alverson. "We made some grain sales ahead of time at nice profitable levels, and we try to manage out costs wisely."
Those various and sundry airport taxes may have finally jumped the shark.
Outbound passengers at the international airport in Caracas, Venezuela will now have to pay 127 Bolívar - about $20 at the official rate of exchange - to breathe.
The government apparently needs it cover the cost of a newly-installed system that uses ozone to purify the air conditioning system.
No word on what happens if you don't pay.
Economist Chris Low discusses interest rates with Marketplace Morning Report host David Brancaccio.
Big brands are adding social media to their advertising budgets, often placing ads directly with individuals who've built large followings on sites like Instagram, YouTube, and Vine. But how do companies and these influencers hook up?
How much is it worth to you to be in on a joke?
Nothing? $10? How about $40,000?
We’ve been contemplating that this week because, of course, of the remarkable story of what has to be the world’s most expensive potato salad.
Short version: Guy makes a kickstarter to make potato salad, puts it on internet, it goes viral, and explodes in a hail of dollars.
What is it about things like this that makes us want to buy in?
New York Magazine’s blog The Science of Us wrote about the transitive property of internet humor - that these moments of virality bind us together in some type of hypermodern experiential campfire. I think that’s true, in part. But they also hit a sweet spot between cynicism (the modern world has ruined everything) and joy (we can contribute to something silly and whimsical). There is originality and connection in the world and we’re constantly discovering new ways to find it.
In our brunch segment this week on Marketplace Weekend, our contributor Jessica Pressler reminded me of the New York bus monitor whose video bullying by students went viral. That incident tapped into our altruistic financial impulses and she received some $700,000 in donations via Indiegogo.
Maybe I’m too optimistic, but I have this hope (stoked by our other bruncher, Joe Weisenthal), that someone will go looking for the potato salad, and stumble onto other Kickstarters. Maybe fund a classroom computer. Someone’s medical treatment. Food for a shelter. A pet rescue. Something else that binds us together when we are otherwise fragmented, pixilated, and far apart.
Plus, with dueling speakers at the Federal Reserve, Salmon believes we should listen to Ktochelekova. Why? Because: “he’s by far the most interesting guy,” at the Federal Reserve.
Listen to their full conversation in the audio player above.
If you've been following the World Cup you may have seen Spanish language TV ads with English subtitles.
Coca Cola tried an ad using different languages during the Super Bowl earlier this year. It didn’t go over so well. But for advertisers the World Cup is a whole different ball game.
“One extreme is the Super Bowl, another extreme is the World Cup," says Mauro Guillen, a professor of international management and Director of the Lauder Institute at the Wharton School. He says one reason we’re seeing ads with English subtitles on American TV, from companies like Hyundai, Dish and JC Penney, is becasue of the growing economic clout of the Hispanic community in the U.S.
JC Penney says it's received such a positive response to its commercial, "Pulse" that it's decided to air the spot, in Spanish, with English subtitles, on primetime networks, NBC, ABC and FOX for the duration of this week.
While Hyundai has been airing its Spanish language ad, "Boom", on ESPN.
The World Cup, notes Guillen, "is a unique opportunity. To experiment and to try out new things. Because not everybody is watching.”
Viewers, he says, are young and cosmopolitan -- they understand bilingual ads -- literally.
Luis Miguel Messianu, president and chief creative officer of Alma, a multicultural advertising firm in Miami, says advertisers are smart to speak Spanish during the World Cup.
“Everybody realizes the power of having a SuperBowl that lasts one month,” he says.
Soccer in America, notes Messianu, is no longer a niche sport. Instead, it’s alive and kicking.
But sports aside, for advertisers, notes Marlene Morris Towns, a professor of marketing at Georgetown’s McDonough School of Business, "it really is a wise business move to look at who your audience is and speak to them, not just in terms of their lifestyle and culture, but litearlly in terms of their language."
Second-quarter bank earnings reports kick off today. First up is Wells Fargo. Other major banks including JPMorgan, Citigroup, and Bank of America follow next week.
Wells Fargo has been winning, big. The nation's top mortgage lender has had 17 straight quarters of earnings growth. But that streak might just come to an end. Earnings aren't expected to be all that great, as analysts predict small declines in second-quarter earnings.
Lauren Cohen, who teaches finance at Harvard Business School, says that's because of slower-than-expected growth in the housing market.
"So it's not that there weren't home sales, it's just that we thought it was going to be a little bit faster," he says. "So that was baked into expectations about how we thought Wells Fargo was going to do."
There's another thing that worries banks: all that money these companies will be paying the government for their part in the recent financial crisis.
"That's one area that will hurt banks' bottom lines," says Michael Imerman, who teaches finance at Lehigh University. He says over last quarter, several of the big banks have set aside reserves for legal fees and settlements.
"We're talking billions of dollars, and this seems to be just the beginning," he says.
On the upside, Cohen says, these are one-off expenses. So banks will bounce back. Eventually.
Increasingly, big brands are adding social media to their ad budgets, often placing ads directly with users who’ve built large online followings on sites like Instagram, YouTube, and Vine. But how do companies and these influencers hook up? There’s a new crop of matchmakers eager to help pair companies with people who will post ads to their feeds.
For Jessica Shyba, companies' interest in her blog and social media networks took off back in November, after she posted photos of her son napping with the family’s new puppy coiled around him.
The photos went viral, and suddenly, she was everywhere.
“At that point, I hired an agent,” said Shyba, turning to Cara Braude, though she’s not sure the word “agent” is the best fit. “You know, when I introduce her to brands or to PR representatives, I introduce her as being in charge of my sponsorships and partnerships.”
Whatever the right title, it was clear Shyba needed help. On Instagram alone, she has nearly half a million followers, which draws lots of attention from brands. On the other side of the table, companies need help finding the Shybas of the internet.
These matchmakers can range from independents like Shyba’s rep or fancy tech start-ups. But the questions they help answer are similar.
“So if you have a have a budget that you want to allocate to Instagram but you’re like, ‘Well how do I go about finding the 30 people who are the perfect brand ambassadors for me?’” says Rob Fishman, co-founder of Niche, which helps companies place packages of ads across a handful of social networks. “Once I find them, how do I reach out, how much should I be paying them and how do know what the return on my investment is?’”
Another company, Reelio, currently focuses exclusively on YouTube ads.
“YouTube’s the big dog,” say Ben Williams, one of Reelio’s founders as well as its CTO and CIO.
Eventually, the company plans to add other sites, but Williams says YouTube is a good starting point for brands.
“The top hundred channels on are really easy to find,” say Williams. As a result, placing ads with them can be competitive, with rates hitting as much as $30,000 or $50,000 per sponsored video.
Finding YouTube "influencers" with more modest, but still significant subscriber bases can be more time consuming, which is where Reelio and its matching algorithm comes in. They typically broker deals where compensation is based on the viewership of a sponsored video.
For example, Reelio matched a YouTube creator with a few hundred thousand followers with Squarespace, a company that helps people make websites.
The video’s producer staged a race between two smartphones to test their processing speed, even though Squarespace doesn’t sell the phones.
“It’s more for brand recognition, like traditional advertising,” says Williams.
The video had about 330,000 views. People had chosen to watch the video because they were interested in the content -- which is the real match companies are seeking.