National / International News

Supreme Court Weighs Race And Politics In Gerrymandering Case

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:42

On Wednesday, the Supreme Court took up the question of what kind of political gerrymandering is acceptable and what is not.

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Successful Comet Landing A Major Step For Space Exploration

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:42

The European Space Agency on Wednesday successfully landed a probe on the surface of a comet — something that has never been done before. But scientists say the lander may not be fully secure.

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Obama Hopes Myanmar Visit Will Give Fledgling Democracy A Boost

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:42

President Obama is visiting Myanmar, also known as Burma, for the second time in two years. He's there to encourage the Southeast Asian nation's efforts to create a functioning democracy.

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For U.S.-China Deal On Greenhouse Gases, The Devil Is In The Details

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:42

Scientists say a new deal between the U.S. and China on greenhouse gases is a positive move toward new models for controlling emissions, but that it won't keep the Earth from dangerous levels of warming.

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VIDEO: 'It's a life sentence for us'

BBC - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:37
The widow of a police officer murdered by Harry Roberts in 1966 has said she is angry that he has been released from prison.

Djokovic destroys Wawrinka

BBC - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:31
World number one Novak Djokovic destroys Stan Wawrinka 6-3 6-0 in another one-sided World Tour Finals match in London.

Is net neutrality really 'Obamacare for the internet'?

BBC - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:30
The tweet that has net neutrality activists howling

The Rare Place Where Israelis And Iranians Play Together

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:23

Iran and Israel are sworn enemies, but Germany is neutral ground where people from those countries can collaborate musically. Sistanglia, an Israeli-Iranian ensemble, is doing just that.

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Virgin pilot 'thrown free' in crash

BBC - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:22
The pilot who survived the Virgin Galactic spaceship crash was thrown clear as the craft broke up around him, investigators say.

WATCH: Turkish Protesters Attack 3 U.S. Sailors In Istanbul

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:06

The sailors were from the USS Ross, a warship docked nearby. Protesters from a left-leaning group pushed them, placed sacks on their heads and chanted, "Yankee, go home." The sailors escaped unhurt.

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China's Leader Says Journalists Are Like Broken Cars

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:06

Even the White House wasn't sure what to expect when Chinese President Xi Jinping took a rare question from a U.S. reporter during a joint news conference with President Obama in Beijing.

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Two Workers Rescued From Scaffolding 69 Stories Up At 1 World Trade Center

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 12:04

Firefighters had to break a window to rescue the pair after their scaffolding malfunctioned.

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Qatar to be cleared of corruption

BBC - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:51
Qatar will be cleared of corruption claims over the 2022 World Cup bidding process in a Fifa report, the BBC has learned.

Coal Mines Keep Operating Despite Injuries, Violations And Millions In Fines

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:35

An NPR investigation found thousands of American mine owners fail to pay penalties for safety violations, even as they continue to manage dangerous — and sometimes deadly — operations.

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Who's That Lebanese Man With A Beard: Hipster Or Jihadi?

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:26

Hipsters in Beirut have a problem. Their long, lustrous beards are getting them mistaken for Islamist extremists and drawing unwanted scrutiny from the security forces.

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Mali Is Worried About Ebola, Quarantines Nearly 100

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:22

The virus appears to have taken two new victims in the West African country. The government is stepping up its quarantines and contact tracing to prevent an outbreak.

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Using data to head off high school dropouts

Marketplace - American Public Media - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:12

Principal Kelley Birch’s office at Willis Jepson Middle School in Vacaville, California, has the usual stuff: elaborate scheduling calendars, photos and a neat stack of papers. 

What you won’t see, unless you walk around to Birch’s desk, is a whiteboard with handwritten names of the 56 students at Willis Jepson who have been struggling – the 7th and 8th graders who might not graduate high school a few years down the road.

Next to each name on the list trouble spots are noted, things like poor grades, poor attendance or serious behavior issues. The list also keeps track of the way the school has tried to help. The more marks next to a student’s name, the more interventions the teachers and counselors have attempted. 

“When I see that board,” says Birch, “I have an urgency that these kids need something now.” 

In the past, Birch says, getting a full view of which kids were in trouble took time.

“We would wait for the teacher. And the teacher would go to the counselor and say, 'I have this student and they aren’t doing well," Birch says. "And the counselor would go look and say, 'Yeah, they aren’t doing well.' But by then, it’s a quarter into the school year, a semester into the school year.” 

Birch now uses what’s known as an Early Warning System. Her team gathers and processes a steady stream of student data – such as GPA, attendance, demerits, and test scores – to peer into the future and spot the 7th and 8th graders most at risk of dropping out of high school.

 

An example of an Early Warning System.

Maine Department of Education

“It’s about using data that are available to predict which students are at risk, identify them, and then provide supports and interventions so they can get back on track,” says Susan Bowles Therriault, principal researcher for the education program at American Institutes for Research. 

The national graduation rate has been climbing steadily. Today, about 80 percent of public high school seniors will graduate. A decade ago, that number was closer to 70 percent. Educators, parents, and politicians all want to see that number continue to increase.

Early Warning Systems are one way schools are trying to make that happen. Therriault says the proliferation of individual-level student data has made these systems possible, even common.

“There are probably schools and districts in every state across the nation that are using Early Warning Systems in some format,” she says. 

Research shows that the two most important factors when trying to predict whether a student will graduate from high school on-time are academic performance and attendance. But different schools, districts and states have their own models. They might include their own variables, or they start looking for signs that a child is at risk at different points in their education. And they flag them in different ways.

Dan Hill for LearningCurve

In Wisconsin, every 6th grader in the state is given a score between 0 and 100 that represents the child’s expected chances of finishing high school on time. Students under 78.5 are flagged as “high risk,” and their names are highlighted in red in the state’s student database.

“It’s early, and that’s the real advantage of it,” says Jared Knowles, a research analyst at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, which calculates the scores.

Knowles says predicting the path of a 6th grader gives teachers a long lead time to change that path. Plus, he says, it can be cheaper to intervene early, before problems multiply.  

But Knowles acknowledges there are risks to using data to mark students as potential dropouts. “We do a lot of work to communicate about the limits of the prediction,” Knowles says, to show “that it’s not destiny.”

Educators wouldn't want a teacher to give up on a student with a score of, say, 20 in order to help those with 80s. They don’t want a student to find out she’s got a red flag next to her name – and give up on herself.

The data, says Knowles, is just a snapshot of how a child is doing. It’s a symptom of trouble, but it’s not a diagnosis, and it’s not a cure.

“The school has to do that hard work to re-engage them back into the education system,” Knowles says.

That is the work that will actually change an outcome for a struggling student, not data or data systems, experts say.

Back at Principal Birch’s middle school in Vacaville, these school interventions take many forms, including special-ed evaluations, behavioral counseling, mentoring, and intervention classes in a specific subject area.

In the English intervention class, about a dozen students are going over the basics of reading comprehension. In the math intervention class, students are struggling to calculate discounts and tips.

These classes take resources, and Willis Jepson Middle School didn’t have extra money, so Birch came up with an elaborate bell schedule to squeeze them into the day. She also made some classes a little bigger, to free up teachers to run these interventions.

Birch says all the extra work like data crunching and schedule crunching is worth it to get students back on track.

And, hopefully, erase their names from that list in her office.

Using data to predict students headed for trouble

Marketplace - American Public Media - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:12

Principal Kelley Birch’s office at Vacaville, Calif.'s Willis Jepson Middle School has the usual stuff: elaborate scheduling calendars, photos, and a neat stack of papers. 

What you won’t see, unless you walk around to Birch’s desk, is a whiteboard with handwritten names of the 56 students at Willis Jepson who have been struggling, the 7th and 8th graders who might not graduate high school a few years down the road.

Next to each name on the list are their trouble spots, things like poor grades, poor attendance, serious behavior issues. On the same list are notes about the ways the school has tried to help. The more marks next to a kid’s name, the more interventions the teachers and counselors attempted. 

“When I see that board,” says Birch, “I have an urgency that these kids need something now.” 

In the past, Birch says, getting a full view of which kids were in trouble took time. “We would wait for the teacher. And the teacher would go to the counselor and say, 'I have this student and they aren’t doing well," Birch says. "And the counselor would go look and say, 'Yeah, they aren’t doing well.' But by then, it’s a quarter into the school year, a semester into the school year.” 

Now, Birch uses what’s known as an Early Warning System. Her team gathers and processes a steady stream of student data, like GPA, attendance, demerits, and test scores, to peer into the future and spot the 7th and 8th graders most at risk of dropping out of high school in the future. 

An example of an Early Warning System.

Maine Department of Education

“It’s about using data that are available to predict which students are at risk, identify them, and then provide supports and interventions so they can get back on track,” says Susan Bowles Therriault, Principal Researcher for the education program at American Institutes for Research. 

The national graduation rate has been climbing steadily. Today, about 80 percent of public high school seniors will graduate. A decade ago, that number was closer to 70 percent, but educators, parents, and politicians all want to see that number increasing. 

Early Warning Systems are one way schools are trying to make that happen. 

Therriault says the proliferation of individual-level student data has made these systems possible, even common. “There are probably schools  and districts in every state across the nation that are using Early Warning Systems in some format,” she says. 

Research shows that the two most important factors when trying to predict whether a kid will graduate from high school on-time are academic performance and attendance. But, different schools, districts, and states have their own models. They might include their own variables, or they start looking for signs a kid is at risk at different points in their education. And they flag them in different ways.

Dan Hill for LearningCurve

In Wisconsin, every 6th grader in the state is given a score between 0 and 100 that represents the child’s expected chances of finishing high school on time. Students under 78.5 are flagged “high risk,” and highlighted in red in the state’s student database.

“It’s early, and that’s the real advantage of it,” says Jared Knowles, a Research Analyst at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, which calculates the scores.

Knowles says predicting the path of a 6th grader gives teachers a long lead time to change that path. Plus, he says, it can be cheaper to intervene early, before problems multiply.  

But Knowles acknowledges, using data this way, to mark kids as potential dropouts, has risks. “We do a lot of work to communicate about the limits of the prediction,” Knowles says, “that it’s not destiny.”

Not destiny.

You don’t want a teacher to see a kid with score of 20, and give up, in order to help the kids with 80s. You don’t want a kid to know she’s got a red flag next to her name, and give up on herself.

The data, says Knowles, is just a snapshot of how a child is doing. It’s a symptom of trouble, but it’s not a diagnosis, and it’s not a cure. “The school has to do that hard work to re-engage them back into the education system,” says Knowles.

It’s that work that’ll actually change an outcome for a struggling student, not data or data systems.

These school interventions take a lot of forms, everything from special-ed evaluations, to behavioral counseling, to mentoring, to intervention classes in a subject area back at Principal Birch’s middle school in Vacaville.

In the English intervention class, about a dozen students are going over the basic of reading comprehension. In the Math intervention class, students are struggling to calculate discounts and tips.

These classes take resources, and Willis Jepson Middle School didn’t have extra money, so Birch came up with an elaborate bell schedule to squeeze them into the day. She also made some classes a little bigger, to free up teachers to run these interventions.

Birch says all the extra work like data crunching and schedule crunching is worth it to get kids back on track.

And, hopefully, erase their names from that list in her office.

Innovation: Smart Yoga Mat Could Help You Find Your Zen

NPR News - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:02

The SmartMat is an intelligent yoga mat that records the user's movements and makes adjustments to improve yoga practice. The creators have a prototype and plan to ship the final product in July.

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Big banks get fined in foreign exchange rigging

Marketplace - American Public Media - Wed, 2014-11-12 11:00

The big banks had a fine time on Wednesday – as in they had to pay $4.3 billion worth of fines to financial regulators in the United States, the United Kingdom and Switzerland.

Traders at several big banks – including UBS, JPMorgan Chase and Citigroup – manipulated foreign exchange rates over a five-year period starting in 2008. Essentially, they banded together to get rich at the expense of their clients.

Foreign exchange, or forex, is by far the biggest market in the world in terms of the amount of money that changes hands. According to Carol Osler, a professor at the Brandeis University International Business School, forex is “easily 10 or 20 or 30 times bigger than any other single market you could imagine.”

Every day, more than $5 trillion moves through the market.

“Trading is literally 24/almost-7,” Osler says. “Over the weekends, very little happens, but there is trading almost any time you want to trade.” 

Companies trade currencies to import and export products, and to buy and sell bonds. Banks want to be sure they have enough yen or euros to buy or sell something at a moment’s notice.Because currency trading happens all the time, there is no closing price.

“There was a need for some sort of formal price that institutions could use to value their portfolios,” Osler says.

And so the “fix” was born.

“They had to find an arbitrary time to grab off a rate, and they just decided to do it at 4 p.m.,” says Kathryn Dominguez, a University of Michigan professor of public policy and economics.

Every day, for one minute around 4 p.m. London time, Reuters takes the average exchange rate and that becomes the “fix.”

According to Darrell Duffie, who teaches finance at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, if you are buying and selling currencies, sometimes you do it in real time, “but sometimes you tell the bank, well, never mind giving me a price now, I’ll just pay whatever the 4 p.m. fixing price is.”

And because of that, currency dealers had an easy time colluding to drive that price up or down. Brandeis’ Carol Osler says that, in private chat rooms, traders told each other how much they had to buy and sell to move the price.

“The dealers are thinking, 'Well, gosh, if almost all of us are going to be buying, then we know the price is going to go up,'” Osler says. “Well, it would be helpful to know what is going on with everyone else.”

When they announced the fines, regulators called on banks to change their corporate culture – and left the door open for criminal prosecution.

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